What are the bad estrogen metabolites?
Some of these metabolites, such as 2-hydroxyestrone, are considered “good” estrogen metabolites that can help control the cell growth triggered by estradiol. Others, such as 16alpha-hydroxyestrone, are considered “bad” estrogen metabolites that can contribute to cell processes that increase the risk of breast cancer.
What are estrogenic metabolites?
Estrogen metabolism occurs when estrone and estradiol, the parent estrogens, are irreversibly hydroxylated at the 2-, 4-, or 16-position of the steroid ring ( Figure 1 ), producing 13 known estrogen metabolites.
What happens when estrogen is metabolized?
Estrogens are eliminated from the body by metabolic conversion to estrogenically inactive metabolites that are excreted in the urine and/or feces. The first step in the metabolism of estrogens is the hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes.
What is urinary estrogen?
The principle urinary estrogens are the conjugates of estriol and 2-hydroxyestrone (47). From: Treatment of the Postmenopausal Woman (Third Edition), 2007.
What is the difference between good estrogen and bad estrogen?
Good and Bad Estrogen These “good” estrogen metabolites are estrogen antagonists known as 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE). The “bad” metabolites have been tied to cancer and weight gain. These “bad” estrogen metabolites are estrogen agonists, known as 16-hydroxyestrone (16-OHE).
Why can hydroxylation be bad?
Modulation of estrogen hydroxylation is essential since some of the other metabolites increase the risk of breast and other hormone-related cancers. The role of environmental toxins like the phthalate esters and how these compounds increase risk for hormonal cancers is examined in a second pilot study.
Is estrogen excreted in urine?
Over 40% of estradiol excreted in the urine is converted to estrone, and the major portion is in the form of a polar conjugate that is presently not detectable by RIA. Over 85% of estradiol is excreted in the urine.
Why do I need to metabolize estrogen?
Estrogen is metabolized by the liver through three different pathways. Depending on the pathway, estrogen will be converted into good or bad metabolites. The 2-hydroxy metabolic pathway is considered good as it has the lowest risk for cancer and other problems.
Is there estrogen in female urine?
woman excretes the estrogen and progesterone in urine.
Which of the following is are the primary metabolites of estrogen?
There are three major endogenous estrogens that have estrogenic hormonal activity: estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). Estradiol, an estrane, is the most potent and prevalent.
What are the 4 types of estrogen?
Types and examples The four major naturally occurring estrogens in women are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and estetrol (E4). Estradiol(E2) is the predominant estrogen during reproductive years both in terms of absolute serum levels as well as in terms of estrogenic activity.
What are the 3 types of estrogen?
There are three major forms of estrogen:
- Estrone (E1) is the primary form of estrogen that your body makes after menopause.
- Estradiol (E2) is the primary form of estrogen in your body during your reproductive years. It’s the most potent form of estrogen.
- Estriol (E3) is the primary form of estrogen during pregnancy.