What is the pathophysiology of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?
The pathophysiology of ITP is complex and abnormalities of both the B-cell and the T-cell compartments have been identified. The mechanisms of the thrombocytopenia involve both increased platelet destruction and, in a significant proportion of cases, impaired platelet production.
What is the pathology associated with thrombocytopenia?
Thrombocytopenia is associated with risk of thrombosis in conditions like heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH).
What are the four mechanisms of thrombocytopenia?
INTRODUCTION. Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in critically ill veterinary patients, regardless of the diagnosis at admission. There are four primary causes of thrombocytopenia: hypoproliferation (lack of production), sequestration, consumption (utilization), and destruction.
Which manifestations is most likely to be assessed in a patient with thrombocytopenia?
Bleeding. Bleeding is the most common clinical manifestation of ITP, presenting as mucocutaneous bleeding involving the skin, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract.
What causes thrombocytopenia in dengue fever?
There are two possible mechanisms that can cause thrombocytopenia in dengue patients. One is increased platelet destruction and clearance from peripheral blood. The other is decreased production of platelets in the bone marrow .
What are the risk factors for thrombocytopenia?
Risk Factors of Thrombocytopenia
- Have certain types of cancer, aplastic anemia, or autoimmune diseases.
- Are exposed to certain toxic chemicals.
- Have a reaction to certain medicines.
- Have certain viruses.
- Have certain genetic conditions.
What is the most common cause of thrombocytopenia?
Thrombocytopenia might occur as a result of a bone marrow disorder such as leukemia or an immune system problem. Or it can be a side effect of taking certain medications. It affects both children and adults.
What are two conditions that cause polycythemia?
The most common causes of secondary polycythemia include obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Other causes include testosterone replacement therapy and heavy cigarette smoking.
What are the signs and symptoms of thrombocytopenia?
Thrombocytopenia signs and symptoms may include:
- Easy or excessive bruising (purpura)
- Superficial bleeding into the skin that appears as a rash of pinpoint-sized reddish-purple spots (petechiae), usually on the lower legs.
- Prolonged bleeding from cuts.
- Bleeding from your gums or nose.
- Blood in urine or stools.
Which platelet complex is most commonly involved in the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia?
ITP is common in CVID (10%) and is frequently the first manifestation of the disorder. Patients with CVID exhibit immune defects late in B-cell maturation characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, a normal B-cell count, and variable T-cell phenotype.