What is the mechanism of action of doxorubicin?
Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy drug called an anthracycline. It slows or stops the growth of cancer cells by blocking an enzyme called topo isomerase 2. Cancer cells need this enzyme to divide and grow. You might have doxorubicin in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.
What is the mechanism of action of cyclophosphamide?
MECHANISM OF ACTION: Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent of the nitrogen mustard type. 2 An activated form of cyclophosphamide, phosphoramide mustard, alkylates, or binds, to DNA. Its cytotoxic effect is mainly due to cross-linking of strands of DNA and RNA, and to inhibition of protein synthesis.
What is the mechanism of action of cisplatin?
The mechanism of action of cisplatin has been associated with ability to crosslink with the urine bases on the DNA to form DNA adducts, preventing repair of the DNA leading to DNA damage and subsequently induces apoptosis within cancer cells.
What is carboplatin mechanism of action?
Mechanism of action Carboplatin undergoes activation inside cells and forms reactive platinum complexes that cause the intra- and inter-strand cross-linkage of DNA molecules within the cell. This modifies the DNA structure and inhibits DNA synthesis. This may affect a cell in all the phases of its cycle.
What is the mechanism of action of vinblastine?
Mechanism of Action Vinblastine is the salt of an alkaloid extracted from a flowering herb commonly known as periwinkle. Vinblastine is cell cycle phase specific; it binds to microtubular proteins in the mitotic spindle, thereby preventing cell division during metaphase.
What is the chemical process of Taxol?
Taxol stops the uncontrolled cell divisions of cancer by forming extremely stable and nonfunctional microtubules. The microtubules are the means of chromosome motion during mitosis (cell division). Mitosis is halted when the stable, nonfunctional microtubules fail to form a normal mitotic apparatus.
Is cyclophosphamide a Dmard?
Cyclophosphamide is type of drug known as a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD).
Why does cisplatin bind to guanine?
The primary target of cisplatin is genomic DNA, specifically the N7 position of guanine bases. This point of attack first generates monofunctional adducts, which subsequently closes by coordination to the N7 position of an adjacent purine to afford an intrastrand cross-link.
What is GEM Carbo?
GemCarbo is the name of a chemotherapy combination that includes the drugs gemcitabine and carboplatin. It is a treatment for a number of different cancer types.
What is carboplatin and Taxol?
Paclitaxel and carboplatin, also known as Taxol/Carbo, is used to treat different cancers including ovarian, womb, cervical and lung cancer.
What are the different mechanisms of evolution in biology?
Mechanisms of Evolution 1 Natural Selection. Natural selection has already been discussed. 2 Mutation. Mutation is a source of new alleles in a population. 3 Genetic Drift. Another way a population’s allele frequencies can change is genetic drift ( [Figure 1] ), which is simply the effect of chance. 4 Gene Flow.
Does doxorubicin (Dox) cause reactive oxygen species?
As a potent chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used for the treatment of a variety of cancers However, its clinical utility is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity, and pathogenesis has traditionally been attributed to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
How much Dox to activate gene expression in the brain?
For example, in the rat/AAV-tetbidi-On study, administration of 600 mg/l dox in drinking water, which resulted in a dox concentration of ~5.3 µg/ml in blood and ~0.4 µg/ml in CSF, was required to activate gene expression in the brain (unpublished data).
What are the evolutionary forces of evolution?
Another important evolutionary force is gene flow, or the flow of alleles in and out of a population resulting from the migration of individuals or gametes (). While some populations are fairly stable, others experience more flux.