What is the function of Rab GTPase?

What is the function of Rab GTPase?

Rab GTPases regulate many steps of membrane trafficking, including vesicle formation, vesicle movement along actin and tubulin networks, and membrane fusion. These processes make up the route through which cell surface proteins are trafficked from the Golgi to the plasma membrane and are recycled.

What is a Rab effector?

Rab effectors, defined as proteins that interact specifically with the GTP-bound from of a Rab GTPase, come in many flavours and include molecular tethers, fusion regulators, motors, sorting adaptors, kinases, phosphatases, components of membrane contact sites and Rab regulators (Gillingham et al., 2014).

What does Rab stand for GTPase?

Rab GTPases (‘Ras-related in brain’ [1]), which belong to the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, have emerged as central regulators of vesicle budding, motility and fusion. Like other regulatory GTPases, the Rab proteins switch between two distinct conformations, one GTP-bound and the other GDP-bound (see Figure ​ 1).

Who discovered Rab?

Dieter Gallwitz was the first to discover a yeast-encoded member of the Rab family in the 1980s, when DNA sequencing was just beginning to be widely adopted and required significant effort.

What is biological trafficking?

Definition. Membrane trafficking is the process by which proteins and other macromolecules are distributed throughout the cell, and released to or internalised from the extracellular space. Membrane trafficking uses membrane-bound vesicles as transport intermediaries.

What is the function of Rab GTPases quizlet?

d)Rab GTPase locks the t-SNARE and v-SNARE together, facilitating fusion of the vesicle. Botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular transmission, causing paralysis.

How Rab proteins guide transport vesicles to their target membrane?

A family of Rab proteins functions as vesicle targeting GTPases. Being incorporated with v-SNAREs into budding transport vesicles, the Rab proteins help ensure that the vesicles deliver their contents only to the appropriate membrane-enclosed compartment: the one that displays complementary t-SNARE proteins.

Where are Rab proteins found?

Rab proteins form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily of GTPases. They are localized to the cytoplasmic face of organelles and vesicles involved in the biosynthetic/secretory and endocytic pathways in eukaryotic cells.

What membrane protein facilitates the Association of Rab proteins with vesicle membranes?

A GTPase accelerating protein (GAP) binds to the Rab to catalyze hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP and thereby convert the Rab back to its inactive state (318, 372).

Where are Rab effectors located?

Frequent targets for bacterial effectors are Rab GTPases that reside on endosomes and phagosomes, such as Rab4, Rab5, Rab9, Rab11 and Rab22, but a number of Rab GTPases found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi are also targeted by pathogenesis factors, including Rab1, Rab2, Rab6 and Rab8 (Sherwood and Roy.

What is Rab Gene?

RAB The Rab family of proteins is a member of the Ras superfamily of monomeric G proteins. Rab GTPases regulate many steps of membrane traffic, including vesicle formation, vesicle movement along actin and tubulin networks, and membrane fusion.

What activates Rab GTPase?

A guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) catalyzes exchange of GDP for GTP to activate the Rab. The GTP-bound Rab interacts with effector proteins that mediate membrane traffic in the pathway regulated by its associated Rab.