What is non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding?
Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is bleeding that develops in the oesophagus, stomach or proximal duodenum. Peptic ulcers, caused by Helicobacter pylori infection or use of NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin (LDA), are the most common cause.
How is variceal and non-variceal bleeding different?
Variceal bleeding is UGIB caused by esophageal or gastric varices. Non-variceal bleeding is caused by any etiology of UGIB other than varices.
What is UGI bleeding?
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency worldwide and refers to bleeding from the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.
What are the three main presentations of GI bleeding?
Clinical presentations of gastrointestinal bleeding are classified as overt (acute), occult (chronic) or obscure and the corresponding diagnostic algorithms are illustrated through review of the key evidence and consensus guidelines. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy are the mainstay of initial investigations.
What does non variceal bleeding mean?
Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz in the absence of oesophageal, gastric or duodenal varices. The clinical presentation varies according to the intensity of bleeding from occult bleeding to melena or haematemesis and haemorrhagic shock.
What is Hematemesis evidence?
Melena strongly suggests, and hematemesis confirms, that bleeding is of upper gastrointestinal origin. In this situation, seek historical evidence for common causes such as peptic ulcer, cirrhosis with esophageal or gastric varices, gastritis, esophagitis, Mallory–Weiss tears, and malignancy.
What causes gastrointestinal bleeding?
There are many possible causes of GI bleeding, including hemorrhoids, peptic ulcers, tears or inflammation in the esophagus, diverticulosis and diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, colonic polyps, or cancer in the colon, stomach or esophagus.
What is the difference between upper and lower GI bleeding?
Upper GI bleeding: The upper GI tract includes the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach), stomach, and first part of the small intestine. Lower GI bleeding: The lower GI tract includes much of the small intestine, large intestine or bowels, rectum, and anus.
What is the pathophysiology of upper GI bleeding?
Pathogenesis. The main inciting event in the pathogeneis of upper GI bleeding is damage to mucosal injury. This mucosal injury can occur at various levels of GI tract. If the damage and bleeding is confined up to ligament of Treitz, it is defined as upper GI bleeding.
What is gastric varices?
Gastric varices are dilated portosystemic collateral blood vessels that develop as a complication of portal hypertension or extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Based on the location and relation to the esophagus, gastric varices are further classified into gastroesophageal varices isolated gastric varices.
Which vein is involved in hematemesis?
Downhill esophageal varices (DEV) are varices formed from obstructed venous blood flow in the superior vena cava (SVC).
What is haematemesis and Melaena?
Definition. Hematemesis is the vomiting of blood, which may be obviously red or have an appearance similar to coffee grounds. Melena is the passage of black, tarry stools. Hematochezia is the passage of fresh blood per anus, usually in or with stools.
What is GI bleed?
INTRODUCTION • Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum. Classified into • Upper GI Bleed • Lower GI Bleed
What is the difference between Lower Git bleeding and non variceal bleeding?
While non variceal bleeding associated with peptic ulcer disease or other causes of UGIB. UGIB is 4 times as common as bleeding from lower GIT, with a higher incidence in male.
What are the two types of gastrointestinal bleeding?
CONCLUSION Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum. An upper GI bleed is more common than lower GI bleed. leading is typically divided into two main types: upper gastrointestinal bleeding and lower gastrointestinal bleeding.
What are the treatment options for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB)?
* Combination therapy appears to provide durable control of bleeding than monotherapies :Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in adults. Author. John R Saltzman,:current gastroenterology updates 2013 38. SECOND LOOK ENDOSCOPY * Routine second-look endoscopy is not recommended for most patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.