What does IL-4 do to macrophages?
In T-cells, IL-4 induces the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, in B cells, IL-4 drives the immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch to IgG1 and IgE, and in macrophages, IL-4 and IL-13 induce alternative macrophage activation.
What is the function of IL-4?
IL-4 has an important role in regulating antibody production, hematopoiesis and inflammation, and the development of effector T-cell responses. It is produced only by a subset of activated hematopoietic cells, including T cells and Fc epsilon R1+ mast cells and basophils.
What il do macrophages produce?
When macrophages are exposed to inflammatory stimuli, they secrete cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12. Although monocytes and macrophages are the main sources of these cytokines, they are also produced by activated lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts.
What is IL-4 produced by?
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a complex glycoprotein produced mostly by mast cells, basophils, a subset of activated T cells, eosinophils and neutrophils (Chomarat and Banchereau, 1997).
What does IL-4 do in allergy?
IL-4 directs B-cell production of IgE and IgG4, while co-stimulating proliferation, and also directs the upregulation of CD23, Class II major histocompatibility antigens, IL-4R, CD40, IL-2Rβ, and Thy-1. This production of IgE is central to the development of atopic diseases.
Is IL-4 proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory?
Interleukin-4 and IL-10 are pleiotropic anti-inflammatory cytokines that function mainly by suppressing the pro-inflammatory milieu. Several different immune cells that produce IL-4 are activated T cells, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and NKT cells (21, 22).
What interleukin activates macrophages?
Interleukin 3 (IL3) is a cytokine that regulates hematopoiesis by controlling the production, differentiation and function of granulocytes and macrophages. The protein, which exists in vivo as a monomer, is produced in activated T cells and mast cells, and is activated by the cleavage of an N-terminal signal sequence.
What does IL-4 do to T cells?
In T cells, binding of IL-4 to its receptor induces proliferation and differentiation into Th2 cells . The existence of polarized T cell populations was discovered in mice , and subsequently observed in humans , although some T cells can produce overlapping cytokine profiles.
How do macrophages produce cytokines?
Macrophages activated by contact with pathogens or danger signals release cytokines and chemokines as a major component of the innate immune response (1). Inflammatory cytokines recruit other immune cells and orchestrate the actions and fates of the cells secreting them and those in the surrounding milieu.
Why is IL-4 antiinflammatory?