What are common mechanisms of insulin resistance?

What are common mechanisms of insulin resistance?

Insulin resistance is a complex metabolic disorder that defies a single etiological pathway. Accumulation of ectopic lipid metabolites, activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway and innate immune pathways have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

What is C2C12 cell line?

C2C12 is an immortalized mouse myoblast cell line. The C2C12 cell line is a subclone of myoblasts that were originally obtained by Yaffe and Saxel at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel in 1977.

What is the marker for insulin resistance?

TG/HDL-C is proven to be a good marker for insulin resistance among youth with obesity22 and a good predictor of diabetes.

What is the best predictor of insulin resistance?

The most promising potential predictor of IR, the basal insulin value, despite its high AUROC, displayed a low sensitivity (0.568), thus limiting its predictive power to diagnose IR.

What causes insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes?

What Causes Insulin Resistance? It isn’t clear exactly what causes insulin resistance, but a family history of type 2 diabetes, being overweight (especially around the waist), and being inactive all can raise the risk. You do not have to be overweight to have insulin resistance.

What causes insulin receptor resistance?

Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of both obesity and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In general, the causes of insulin resistance can be placed into three categories: (1) abnormal beta cell secretory products, (2) circulating insulin antagonists, and (3) target tissue defects in insulin action.

What is C2C12 differentiation?

Differentiation of C2C12 cells is achieved by replacing GM to differentiation media, DM [DMEM—high glucose no sodium pyruvate (Gibco), 2% horse serum (Gibco), 1% glutamine (Gibco), 1% pen/strep (Gibco)]. After 24 h in DM, fused cells should be visible. DM should be changed every 48 h.

Is C2C12 a stem cell?

More recently, Nozaki et al. (2015) developed the C2C12 cell line from the BubR1 hypomorphic mouse model of accelerated-aging (Baker et al., 2008); these cells are characterized by a subpopulation of muscle stem cells expressing p16Ink4a (Nozaki et al., 2015).

How do you read insulin resistance results?

It also measures the amount of insulin in your blood. Between two and three hours after consuming 100mg of glucose, insulin levels below 60 mIU/L are normal, while anything between 60 and 99 is borderline, and a result above 100 is considered insulin resistance.

What is the Matsuda index?

The Matsuda index is an index of whole-body insulin sensitivity derived from the simultaneous assessment of insulin and glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with five measurement at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min.

How do you measure insulin sensitivity in cells?

Typically, insulin sensitivity is calculated by dividing the glucose disposal rate by the plasma insulin (or C-peptide) concentration at steady state during the last 30 or 60 minutes of a 2-hr hyperglycemic clamp.

Is there a difference between diabetes and insulin resistance?

Insulin resistance isn’t a cause of type 1 diabetes, but people with type 1 who are insulin resistant will need higher insulin doses to keep their blood sugar under control than those who are more sensitive to insulin.